Molygdenum and Hair Testing
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Supplementation for molybdenum should be done under the guidance of a skilled HTMA Practitioner and be used based on the results of a hair test.
Molybdenum is a powerful copper antagonist. Most copper antagonists such as zinc will displace copper. A unique property of molybdenum is that it binds or complexes directly with copper and facilitates its removal. This enables copper to be removed from the body without the common side effects that often occur with its removal. Another reason for this action is that molybdenum raises sodium, offsetting the sodium-lowering effect that occurs when copper is eliminated. Molybdenum absorption is antagonized by copper, sulfur, methionine and a high-protein diet. Molybdenum metabolism is antagonized by manganese, zinc and at times sulfur.
Molybdenum is a mineral that is not found freely in nature. The main known function of molybdenum in humans is to act as a catalyst for enzymes and to help facilitate the breakdown of certain amino acids in the body. Molybdenum combines with sulfite oxidase to catalyze sulfur-containing amino acids that are crucial for human health.
Molybdenum is known to activate some enzymes and is involved in purine metabolism and iron utilization through the enzyme, xanthine oxidase. Deficiency is known to increase the incidence of dental caries. Molybdenum is found in all foods but the highest sources are found in milk, legumes, and cereals.
Recommended RDA for Molydenum
The RDA of molybdenum for men and women is 45 mcg a day. The RDA for pregnant women and breastfeeding women is 50 mcg. The risk of toxicity of molybdenum in humans from food sources is very low. The tolerable upper intake level for adults is 2 mg (2000 mcg) a day and occurs only through careless supplementation.
Molygdenum and Enzyme Production
Molybdenum is involved in the production of “molybdoenzymes” which as the four main enzymes in the body known as molybdoenzymes.
- Aldehyde oxidase & Aldehyde dehydrogenase
Aldehyde oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are produced by the body to breakdown aldehydes. Aldehydes are toxic compounds including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Drinking alcohol requires enough of these two enzymes to convert acetaldehydes produced from ethanol detoxification by the liver into usable carboxylic acids the body can use. Mold and yeast also produce aldehydes that require these enzymes to help detoxify.
- DMSO Reductase (DMSO)
Molygdenum helps make the enzyme that is necessary to break it down into dimethyl sulfide so that it is eliminated from the body. Supplementing with DMSO will bypass the natural skin barrier and absorb topically applied supplements directly into the venous system reduce inflammation from arthritis.
- Sulfite oxidase
Sulfite oxidase helps the transformation of sulfites into sulfates that get eliminated from the body. Sulfite oxidase helps the metabolism of all ingested sulfur from the diet including sulfur-containing amino acids of methionine and cysteine. It is important for mitochondrial function and helps generates ATP.
- Xanthine oxidase
Xanthine oxidase is produced by the body to help the breakdown of nucleotides to form antioxidant called uric acid. Uric acid is an important antioxidant, but too much may crystallize in joints and cause gout. Too much molybdenum may cause gout-like symptoms, possibly from the over production of xanthine oxidase and uric acid.
Foods high in molybdenum include:
- legumes such as peas and lentils
- kidney beans, navy beans and lima beans
- almonds, cashews, chestnuts and peanuts
- soy products such as soy milk, soybeans and tofu
- dairy products, especially cheese and yogurt
- leafy vegetables
- whole grains
Dietary sources of the mineral that would not be bound by large amounts of phytic acid include:
- cow Liver
- chicken Liver
- green beans
Symptoms Of Acute Toxicity Of Molybdenum
- Symptoms of acute toxicity include: decreased appetite, listlessness, weakness, fatigue, anorexia, headache, arthritis, myalgia, chest pain, nonproductive cough and diarrhea.
- Symptoms of severe toxicity include: psychosis, seizures, anxiety, severe depression, changes in mood, headaches, coma and death.